How does society limit individual aspirations? In this regard, the two macro perspectives offer significant advantages over their micro cousins. Wikimedia Commons — public domain.
For example, no such revolution has occurred in the United States, where workers never developed the degree of class consciousness envisioned by Marx and Engels. Herbert Blumera sociologist at the University of Chicago, built on their writings to develop symbolic interactionism, a term he coined.
Exchange or rational choice theory would emphasize that armed robbers and other criminals are rational actors who carefully plan their crimes and who would be deterred by a strong threat of swift and severe punishment. A functionalist approach might suggest that armed robbery and other crimes actually serve positive functions for society.
In general, Durkheim added, society comprises many types of social facts, or forces external to the individual, that affect and constrain individual attitudes and behavior. Distinguish macro approaches in sociology from micro approaches. In explaining armed robbery, symbolic interactionism would focus on how armed robbers make such decisions as when and where to rob someone and on how their interactions with other criminals reinforce their own criminal tendencies.
But once one or both partners decide the reverse is true, the relationship will end. Some British boys are stranded on an island after a plane crash.
Comparing Macro and Micro Perspectives This brief presentation of the four major theoretical perspectives in sociology is necessarily incomplete but should at least outline their basic points. Their understanding of the situation and subsequent interaction will be very different from those arising from the more typical shaking of hands.
Yet their very micro focus leads them to pay relatively little attention to the reasons for, and possible solutions to, such broad and fundamentally important issues as poverty, racism, sexism, and social change, which are all addressed by functionalism and conflict theory.
At this point in your study of sociology, which one of the four sociological traditions sounds most appealing to you? By taking a skeptical approach to social change, functionalism supports the status quo and is thus often regarded as a conservative perspective.
We look at these institutions in later chapters. Without a strong society and effective socialization, they warned, social order breaks down, and violence and other signs of social disorder result. Their definition of the situation depends not only on whether they shake hands but also, if they do not shake hands, on why they do not.
Functionalism emphasizes the importance of social institutions for social stability and implies that far-reaching social change will be socially harmful.
Social order is possible because people realize it will be in their best interests to cooperate and to make compromises when necessary. It might note that most street criminals are poor and thus emphasize that armed robbery and other crimes are the result of the despair and frustration of living in poverty and facing a lack of jobs and other opportunities for economic and social success.
Within the micro camp, two other perspectives exist: In a capitalist society, the bourgeoisieor ruling class, owns the means of production, while the proletariator working class, does not own the means of production and instead is oppressed and exploited by the bourgeoisie.
All four offer a lot of truth, and all four oversimplify and make other mistakes. Whereas conservative intellectuals feared the mass violence resulting from industrialization, Marx and Engels deplored the conditions they felt were responsible for the mass violence and the capitalist society they felt was responsible for these conditions.
Indeed, at the heart of economics is the view that sellers and buyers of goods and services act rationally to reduce their costs and in this and other ways to maximize their profits.
Functionalism Functionalismalso known as the functionalist perspective, arose out of two great revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. However, history has not supported their prediction that capitalism will inevitably result in a revolution of the proletariat.
Neither of these two macro perspectives has very much to say about social interaction, one of the most important building blocks of society. The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern. Within the broad macro camp, two perspectives dominate: This action is usually intended as a sign of dislike or as an insult, and the other person interprets it as such.
Yet every relationship has its good and bad moments, and both partners make frequent compromises to ensure the relationship will endure. An example is the familiar symbol of shaking hands.Chapter 3: Socialization- From Infancy to Old Age Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity Socialization: the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture Humans need social experience to learn their culture and to service Social experience = foundation of personality: person’s fairly consistent.
Sociology Chapters 1 – 3 Study guide for exam Instructions: This study guide is to provide some insight on the way the questions are written to assist you in studying for your exam. All questions are either multiple-choice questions or true/false.
Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology. Previous. Next. Learning Objectives. Distinguish macro approaches in sociology from micro approaches. Now that you have some understanding of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology, we will discuss in Chapter 2 “Eye on Society.
Chapter 1. An Introduction to Sociology Figure Sociologists study how society affects people and how people affect society. How does being in a crowd affect people’s behaviour? (Photo courtesy of PDerek Hatfield/wikimedia commons).
Apr 19, · Statistics intro: Mean, median, and mode | Data and statistics | 6th grade | Khan Academy - Duration: Khan Academy 1, views. The special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people.
2. The study of the larger world and our society's place in it.Download