The implication that the prefrontal cortex is involved in the regulation of unique internal personality characteristics illustrates how it may be an important component of the self-reference effect. Self-referential processing takes place when an individual encodes information into memory in reference to the self.
Research[ edit ] InGeorge Kelly published his theory about how humans create personal constructs. But the amount of cognitive resources an individual has influence on how much older adults benefit from self referencing.
Abstract Self-referencing has been identified as an advantageous mnemonic strategy for young and older adults. For example, while older adults may remember having studied a picture of a car, they may lack the detailed representation in memory in order to distinguish the studied car from a novel car on the basis of perceptual details such as the color or shape.
Consistent with this idea, it has been demonstrated that the memorial advantage afforded to self-referenced material can be diminished or eliminated when the comparison target is an intimate other such as a parent, friend, or spouse  The capacity for utilizing the self-reference effect remains relatively high throughout the lifespan, even well into old age.
The self-reference effect has been considered a robust encoding strategy and has been effective over the past 30 years Gutches et al. This phenomenon, known as the self-reference effect Rogers et al. Experience reading and speaking trains us to focus on the conceptual meaning of words; therefore the meaning of verbal stimuli will likely be considered more important and will be better remembered than the visual details.
The self-reference just as effective as the SQR4 method when study for exams, but the self-reference method is preferred.
Klein published an article on the self and memory and how it relates to the self-reference effect. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.
There is evidence that objects can be tightly integrated with the concept of the self. The first approach was the survey, question, read, reflect, recite, and review method which is called the SQR4. The self-reference effect is a rich and powerful encoding process that can be used multiple ways.
The study created a gap in research due to the experiments being tested. Memory strategies and orientations that engage "deep" encoding processes benefit older adults. Serbun, Shih and Gutchess performed a study involving the effects of general and specific memory when using the self-reference effect.
By the same token, referencing highly intimate others i.
A parallel can be drawn between the mechanisms driving the specific memorial advantage of self-referencing and the specific memorial advantage provided by the processing of emotionally-valenced items, because referencing the self employs an intrinsically social and emotional context.
We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details as well. When there was a greater availability of cognitive resources, the ability to enhance memory similarly for both young and older adults diverged from socioemotional processing Gutches et al.
The process behind this study was to gather students and divide them into four different task groups and they would be asked to give a yes or no answer to a trait adjective being presented to them.
For example, Martin, Veer and Pervan examined how the weight locus of control of women i.
Although this occurs at different stages for each child, research has shown rather early development of the self-reference advantage. Despite the fact that previous research has established self-referencing as an advantageous mnemonic strategy for remembering items, such as words or objects, little research has addressed the question of whether self-referencing facilitates superior specific memory i.
When using the self-reference effect, people who are low in altruism, the same part of the brain is being used. These findings regarding the varying effects of emotional valence on general and specific memory can extend to the discussion of the self-reference effect on memory specificity seen with age.
Although a few studies have failed to produce the self-reference effect e. For example, older adults exhibit increased recall when using self-generated strategies that rely on personally relevant information e. It was also expected that for the words encoded in the self-referent condition, fewer words would be recalled by participants in the high altruism group than in the low altruism group.
This lays the groundwork for the ideas of personal constructs. While the effects of self-referencing on memory for visual detail has not been examined with age, Kensinger, Garoff-Eaton, and Schacter investigated the effects of emotional content on the memory for visual details in young and older adults.
Also, in addition to their perceived role in several forms of self-representation, cortical midline structures are also involved in the processing of social relationships and recognizing personally familiar others. Theories of intimacy and personal relationships might suggest that the self-reference effect is affected by the closeness of a relationship with the other used as a target.
In contrast, objects like tools, clothing, electronics, and food products contain rich specific details that must be remembered or at least recognized in daily life in order to distinguish one exemplar from another. Because the extant literature has mainly explored the self-reference effect on memory for verbal stimuli, which present abstract concepts rather than intricate perceptual details, it is difficult to assess the level of specificity encoded in memory.
Like young adults, older adults exhibit superior recognition for self-referenced items.Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details.
Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. The self reference experiment, Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, (), examines which encoding tasks are superior in memory recognition.
In the present study participants completed a series of questions that asked if a word either described them (self reference) or if the word had an ‘e’ (structural. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY 11, () Self-Reference in Memory: Recognition of Personality Items T. B. RoGERS The University of Calgary The hypothesis that the "self' concept is active in memory was tested in a series of recognition experiments involving first- and third-person sentences under several.
Reference to self, other, and object as levels of processing in recognition memory Gustavo Gauer ([email protected]) Department of Developmental and Personality Psychology, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, Bicultural mind, self-construal, and self- and mother-reference effects: Consequences of cultural priming on recognition memory Author links open overlay panel Jie Sui a Ying Zhu a Chi-yue Chiu b Show more.
Ageing and the self-reference effect in memory ARTICLE in MEMORY · NOVEMBER AGEING AND THE SELF-REFERENCE EFFECT XXXXXXXXXXXXX during self-referencing decisions (Gutchess, Ken- differences in the self-reference effect using recognition memory.
We investigate young and.Download